Contrast-enhanced ultrasound with sub-micron sized contrast agents detects insulitis in mouse models of type1 diabetes
Authors: David G. Ramirez, Eric Abenojar, Christopher Hernandez, David S. Lorberbaum, Lucine A. Papazian, Samantha Passman, Vinh Pham, Agata A. Exner & Richard K. P. Benninger
In type1 diabetes (T1D) autoreactive T-cells infiltrate the islets of Langerhans, depleting insulin-secreting β-cells (insulitis). Insulitis arises during an asymptomatic phase, prior to clinical diagnosis of T1D. Methods to diagnose insulitis and β-cell mass changes during this asymptomatic phase are limited, precluding early therapeutic intervention. During T1D the islet microvasculature increases permeability, allowing nanoparticles to access the microenvironment. Contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) uses shell-stabilized gas bubbles to provide acoustic backscatter in vasculature. Here, we report that sub-micron sized ‘nanobubble’ ultrasound contrast agents can be used to measure increased islet microvasculature permeability and indicate asymptomatic T1D. Through CEUS and histological analysis, pre-clinical models of T1D show accumulation of nanobubbles specifically within pancreatic islets, correlating with insulitis. Importantly, accumulation is detected early in disease progression and decreases with successful therapeutic intervention. Thus, sub-micron sized nanobubble ultrasound contrast agents provide a predicative marker for disease progression and therapeutic reversal early in asymptomatic T1D.
Reference: Ramirez, D.G., Abenojar, E., Hernandez, C. et al. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound with sub-micron sized contrast agents detects insulitis in mouse models of type1 diabetes. Nat Commun 11, 2238 (2020). Retrieved from https://www.nature.com/
The authors used Bio X Cell's InVivoPlus anti-mouse CD4 (Clone: GK1.5) in this research study.